Saturday, January 24, 2015

Amazon Prime promotion: TODAY ONLY

As many readers know, RRBO earns a small commission on purchases people make from Amazon through links here on the blog or at our main web site. This has generated a small but important revenue stream, which is especially important due to our current funding situation.

Today, Saturday January 24 only, Amazon is offering their Amazon Prime membership for $72 rather than the usual $99. An Amazon Prime membership (they run for a year) gets you:
  • Free 2-day shipping on any size order (or, opt for slower shipping and get a $1 video credit)
  • Free Amazon Instant video -- their streaming service of movies, TV shows, etc., now including many HBO programs without needing an HBO subscription
  • Free access to their Kindle Lending Library (600,000 free ebooks to borrow), plus access to one of the editor's new release picks each month.
  • Amazon Prime Music -- free songs
  • Unlimited photo storage
  • Other deals as rolled out
I'm not here to shill for Amazon, but hope that if you have been thinking about getting a  Prime membership that you do it through this link, and help RRBO earn a few bucks.

You can also give a gift of Amazon Prime for the reduced amount:


Not interested in Amazon Prime? RRBO gets income from anything you purchase.



It's an easy way to support RRBO, and very much appreciated!

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Dearborn portion of Detroit River CBC, 2015

The Detroit River Michigan-Ontario Christmas Bird Count was held, as it is each year, on January 1. This was the 37th year for the count, which is centered at I-94 and Warren Ave, and the 21st year that RRBO has coordinated the field work in the city of Dearborn.

The skies were fair, but the temperatures were cold and windy. This was the first real cold snap of winter after a very mild fall and December. It was cold enough to freeze up a lot of water, but as count day was only a few days into the cold snap, it had not really been cold enough to push a lot of regional waterfowl into the always ice-free areas in our count circle. For example, this was onlly the second year that Canvasback were not counted; in fact, Common Merganser was the only diving duck recorded this year.

Unfortunately, our two counters on campus had unexpected family obligations, resulting in the best remaining habitat in the circle being under-covered. We had the lowest number of party-hours in our history, and raw numbers of many species of common birds were record lows, but not really reflective of actual populations. For these species, the Winter Bird Population Survey will provide more accurate numbers.

The obvious highlight of the count was a Lesser Black-backed Gull, found at the Ford Rouge Plant by Jim Fowler, Mike O'Leary, and Dave Washington, and photographed by Dave.


Most years this team is able to get special permission to enter the complex and check out the open water in the boat slip and other areas not visible from outside the plant. This is the third Dearborn record for Lesser Black-backed Gull. The others were also at the plant, in January and December 2004. This brings the cumulative total for the Dearborn portion of the count to 88 species.

Fifteen Black-crowned Night-Herons were also in their usual wintering spot around an awful little pond in the plant (described in the 2011 post). Most Black-crowned Night-Herons move south for the winter, but a few stick around coastal spots in the Great Lakes.

A view of the Rouge complex from the Dix Street bridge. Urban birding, anyone?

The usually-productive Ford "sunflower" fields mostly lacked birds this year. The only one with sunflowers was at Ford World Headquarters, where we did have 48 Red-winged Blackbirds and many House Sparrows and American Goldfinch. However, all the sunflower heads were seedless. The fields at Hubbard and Southfield, usually the best, had been planted in hay and harvested. Not even weed seeds were evident.


One field had a few rows of sunflowers at the edge, but they were stripped and had no birds.


As usual, we had a Peregrine Falcon at the Ford World headquarters and vicinity, and another one heading north up the Rouge River behind Henry Ford College. There have been two reported off and on this winter in the area.

A male Ring-necked Pheasant that we flushed at Porath Park was the first on the count in 11 years. Porath (Kielb) Park is an 11-acre property in a sparse residential area adjacent to railyards and an industrial border of Detroit was once a clay mine for bricks. In the 1940s, fill material from construction of I-94 was added. A federal brownfields grant was used to clean up contamination (still no digging allowed, according to warning signs) and it was turned into a park by the city in 2005. There are a variety of native plants there, but aside from a trail that is mowed through it (although not this year, apparently), the park has not been maintained very well and it's becoming weedy and overgrown. Still, we like to go take a look each year.

Everyone familiar with this count and our winter bird surveys knows that Dearborn has not seen its American Crow population recover since it was decimated by West Nile Virus -- my most recent summary is here. For this count, we've only counted 1-3 the last few years and this year it finally happened: no crows for the first time in the history of the count.

We ended the day with 38 pecies, which is a record low.

The complete results of the Dearborn portion of the 20145Detroit River CBC can be found at the RRBO web site, which includes historical results. I've written summaries here at Net Results for the 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, and 2009 counts.

You can read an analysis of the first 25 years of the overall count in this paper:

Craves, J. A., and J. A. Fowler, Jr. 2003. Twenty-five years of the Detroit River Michigan-Ontario Christmas Bird Count (pdf). Ontario Birds 21:109-128.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Fall 2014 fruit and seed work

I mentioned in a previous post that our analyses of seeds found in the fecal samples of birds requires context: some sort of compilation and rank abundance of all the ripe fruit available to birds to eat when they are present in the area. In that post, I described our fruit counting methods.

Fruit morphology
Another aspect of our work this fall was describing various morphological characteristics of the common species of fruit available at our site. Many factors go into fruit choice by birds. Among them are the size of the fruit, how many seeds it contains, and the size of the seeds.

Some of these data are available in the literature. As I searched for these metrics, I found that for some species different sources reported quite different numbers, some sources had data on one characteristic but not others, while measurements for some species were not to be found. The best, though not the easiest, solution was to take measurements ourselves. Weekly, we collected around 10 fruits from each of around 30 species, measured the fresh fruit, counted the seeds per fruit, and measured the seeds. Dana Wloch started this project last year, and it was expanded this year. I'll be finishing up with some of the late fruiting species next week, but so far we have measured about 3300 fruits and over 7000 seeds!

Some of our results are basic. For example, the average diameter of the five most common seeds in fecal samples (Common Buckthorn, Amur Honeysuckle, American Pokeweed, Riverbank Grape, and crabapple) is 8.2 mm. This agrees with other studies that have shown bird-dispersed fruits typically average about 8 mm.

Some results are much more intriguing. Glossy Buckthorn is a non-native species that can be quite invasive, especially in wetlands. A recent study from its native range in Sweden stated the average diameter of the fruits was 8.7 mm (458 fruits) with an average of 1.7 seeds per fruit. We measured 134 fruits here over two years, and the average both years was 7.7 mm. The average number of seeds for 168 fruits was 2.5.

Glossy Buckthorn fruit does not ripen simultaneously, so red,
unripe fruit are often on the same branch as black, ripe fruit.

Glossy Buckthorn has been shown to have evolved different morphological characteristics in different parts of its native range. This species has been present in North America for over 200 years. If our data is truly representative of the local population, it might suggest adaptation to a different suite of dispersers, exposure to more or better pollinators, and the higher seed set may be a factor in its success as an invader. All speculative at this point, but no doubt it will prompt me to continue measuring Glossy Buckthorn!

Seed samples
Meanwhile, during the fall season, we collected 453 fecal samples from 6 bird species. However, over 80% of the samples were from robins that we did not band. Several years ago, the University began cleaning off all sidewalks and roads on a daily basis in fall. In a number of areas, low spots in the pavement hold water and attract robins, which often then "leave a deposit." Collecting these samples in communal bathing and drinking areas, as well as along other paths where we observed robins foraging on the ground, is a convenient way to acquire a lot of data.

For catbirds, the top four species in our 41 samples this fall were:
  • American Pokeweed (native)
  • Riverbank Grape (native)
  • Amur Honeysuckle (non-native)
  • shrub dogwoods (native)
This closely follows the rankings for the 5 previous years combined. Pokeweed and grape have ranked #1 and #2, while the shrub dogwoods have been #3 and Amur Honeysuckle and Glossy Buckthorn are close together at #4 and #5.

Sample sizes for robins are much higher. This fall the 453 samples revealed the top four species as:
  • Amur Honeysuckle
  • Common Buckthorn (non-native)
  • crabapples (non-native)
  • Riverbank Grape
These four species are also the same top four species from over 900 samples from previous years, although Common Buckthorn has been the top ranked species for those 5 years.

Two other species in robin samples were notable. Previously, Multiflora Rose (non-native) was found in 4% of samples; this year it increased to 6%. This is interesting considering a number of Multiflora Rose has been reduced in the past year or so both by removal and from infection by rose rosette disease. We also have the native Illinois or Climbing Rose (Rosa setigera) here. There is overlap in the appearance of seeds of these two species, but there are fewer R. setigera, their hips are larger and "ripen" later than multiflora. I believe most of the seeds found in fall samples are probably multiflora.

A comparison of the large hips of the native Rosa setigera (left) and the
small hips of non-native Rosa multiflora (right).
Asiatic Bittersweet (non-native) was previously found in less than one percent of samples. This year, it was in 5% of samples, a rather large jump. This species has also been the target of removal the last couple of years. The capsules encasing the fruit usually open fairly late in the season, and did not seem much earlier this year (first date in samples Oct 8) than the average (Oct 16). Thus, neither increase in the number of plants nor early fruiting seems to explain the higher proportion of samples with bittersweet.

Asiatic Bittersweet is especially conspicuous when there are no leaves on trees.

One possible explanation for the increase in these two species is that robins are eating more of them because a great deal of their top-ranked species (buckthorn and honeysuckle) have been removed in the larger landscape.  However, annual fluctuations due to weather and crop size can be large, so it will take more years of sampling to see if this year was just a quirk, or if trends will start to appear.

I haven't done much digging through the numbers yet, but even this quick look is pretty interesting. 


Friday, November 14, 2014

Fall banding 2014 (last season?)

We wrapped up the 2014 fall banding season on 30 October. This was a tad earlier than usual, but the last week was marred by deer destroying two more nets, and the sighting of yet another "stray" cat.

Is the RRBO banding program in jeopardy?
As noted in a previous post, this was a challenging season. Due to funding shortfalls, we cannot maintain the banding area as needed, and more importantly our hours have been cut. On banding days, all attention has to be devoted to tending the nets and the birds. We also had to spend time doing vegetation surveys when plants were fruiting throughout the season. As a result, time did not allow me to keep up with all my usual activities. Among things that went by the wayside were posting more regular updates to this blog and social media (I apologize!), and doing data analysis or writing the paper I am currently on, the results of our thrush diet study.

My obligation as a bander and researcher is to interpret and disseminate data we have already gathered; we need to make this a top priority. I have been tasked with raising at least $20,000 this year to maintain our current (reduced) schedule without further cuts. If we face more reductions in hours, we certainly will not be able to band next year. If we can top our goal, I hope we can resolve some of our time and resource issues and band at least part-time next fall.

How you can help

RRBO has over 2,000 people who follow us on Twitter, Facebook, or subscribe to our newsletter. Our $20,000 goal can be reached if everyone pitched in just $10! If everyone could spare $50 it would give us breathing room, and give RRBO the resources we need to accomplish our research goals.

You can visit the Support page on the RRBO web site for instructions on how to download a donation coupon, or donate online. If you'd like to donate via credit card directly through the University's secure web site just click this link. Thank you!


Will there be nets in the net lanes next year?



The fall 2014 banding summary, part 1: the birds
On to the birds. RRBO banded on 17 days between 18 August and 30 October. We utilized only about two-thirds of the number of nets we usually do, arranging them to avoid the most deer-prone areas to minimize destruction of nets and harm to birds. We still lost some nets but the damage occurred when they were closed and no injuries to birds resulted.

We captured 317 birds of 46 species. Since we tried to band on days when we hoped to maximize our captures of target species (this year, catbirds and robins), our capture rate* was 50.6 birds per 100 net-hours, the highest since 2006. However, cherry-picking days for good conditions, versus banding every day, means that we can't really compare these results with previous years.

We did succeed with our modest goal, as catbirds and robins were the top two species banded. In fact, despite the very limited schedule, our 38 new catbirds banded was a higher total than the past two years, which were dismal record lows. And we got over 40 seed samples from catbirds (more on that in the next post).

The highlight of the season was the Marsh Wren banded on October 9 described and shown in the previous post. A Blue-gray Gnatcatcher on September 15 and a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker on September 29 were other less-common species in the nets. While it's hard to judge without daily banding or surveys, all thrushes, but especially Hermit Thrushes, seemed scarce this fall, as were sparrows such as Lincoln's, Swamp, and even White-throats.

Although on my own time, I thought I would mention that I also banded at a Washtenaw County site previously used for the catbird project. Although using fewer nets than RRBO in 12 sessions for about half the number of hours, the capture rate was higher at 59.6 birds per 100 net-hours, a great result given that we did not choose our banding days based on conditions. We captured 167 birds of 27 species, with American Goldfinch and White-throated Sparrow being the top species. I am experimenting with this site for several reasons: to test the potential as a back-up for RRBO's campus site, to collect fecal samples to determine diet at a site less-invaded by non-native species to compare with RRBO's data, and to train an enthusiastic future scientist, Aspen Ellis.

Aspen is a UM-Ann Arbor student who has already accumulated a lot of varied ornithological experience: for many years she has prepared bird specimens at the University of Michigan's Museum of Zoology, and she has worked on Audubon's long-running Project Puffin as a research assistant the past two summers in the Gulf of Maine. Aspen's dedication to birds and science has been recognized by the Tim Schantz Memorial Foundation with a scholarship to Alaska to present her puffin experience, and the American Birding Association in their Young Birder of the Year contest. Read about her experiences and goals in her own words here at the eBird website.

Banding in Dearborn wasn't very practical for Aspen around her school schedule (and that of the family's cars!). But her clear commitment to bird conservation and science and her maturity spoke to me, and using the Washtenaw County site -- very near her home -- was the answer. It was a pleasure working with her. She is a fast learner and was mastering the basics as the season drew to an end; I hope we can continue the process next year.

Aspen and a female Eastern Towhee.

Part 2: the fruit data
The paper I am working on now is looking at seeds from fruits in the diets of over 300 Hermit and Swainson's Thrushes. I began with them because my previously published paper documented weight gains in these species. Meanwhile, we are still collecting data on other bird species. We have good samples sizes from catbirds (over 200), and a great data set for robins (well over 1000 from the fall seasons alone). Since catbirds and robins nest here, we would like to see if the fruit in their diets differs from the thrushes, which are only here during migration. Since we also have data for robins from summer and winter, we can also look at how their diets change throughout the year. We have also collected over 1000 specimens at the Washtenaw County site for comparison.

I will summarize a very demanding and interesting season of data on fruit availability and diet sampling in my next post.

A huge thank you to two people. First, Dana Wloch returned for yet another year of banding and seed processing. This year, measuring fruits and their seeds was added to her repertoire. In past years, she has been supported by grant money. This year, she came in several days a week as a volunteer. Truly, I would have gone insane without her.  At the Washtenaw site, my husband Darrin O'Brien forfeited his Sundays to help out banding and training Aspen. Darrin is a talented bander...and every new bander should get more than one perspective!


*In order to compare different locations or years that may operate the same number of hours but with more or fewer nets, capture rate is calculated by "net-hours." One net hour is one 12-meter net open one hour, or two 6-meter nets open one hour, etc. This rate is often expressed per 100 net-hours for more manageable numbers.
 

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Field work, fall 2014

We have been dividing our time here at RRBO censusing and measuring fruit, and banding birds in order to collect the seeds of fruit eaten by the birds.

I know you want me to show you bird stuff first!

Bird of the season so far goes to this Marsh Wren, only the second ever banded by RRBO; the other one was in 1999. Since there are essentially no marshes in Dearborn, this is not a common species here, and this is only the 7th record. Probably the coolest thing was the amazing sound this bird made. I took a short recording -  click here to listen (it's a m4a file, but I can play it with Windows Media Player).

One of the most interesting warblers I've banded lately was this adult female Black-throated Blue Warbler. In dimorphic species, sometimes older females can have relatively male-like plumage. This gal had a lot of blue tones in her feathers, a darkish face, and a very large white "hanky."


Orange-crowned Warblers are always nice -- one of the treats of late fall.



We catch very few Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers -- this is the 6th in over 20 years -- so this youngster was fun to see. Woodpeckers tend to hammer on your fingers, and the very fine, chisel point of a sapsucker bill is an effective weapon...


...although nowhere near as formidable as the powerful bill of a Rose-breasted Grosbeak. We always give grosbeaks a lot of respect!


One thing we always look at when trying to determine the age of birds is whether there is contrast between old and new feathers. In the photo above, it's easy to see the four paler, more worn wing feathers, which she has not replaced this year, and how they contrast with the new, fresher, darker wing feathers. The new feather in the middle that is a bit shorter is still growing in.

Onto the fruit. Our analyses of seeds found in the fecal samples of birds requires context: some sort of compilation and rank abundance of all the ripe fruit available to birds to eat when they are present in the area. Each year, we estimate the percent of ripe fruit on the common species once a week or so throughout the season. This year we are making sure we have complete data on all fleshy fruits available, even if they have not shown up in fecal samples -- all together around two dozen species. For less-common fruits, we have tried to locate and count all individual fruit, once a week. For abundant species, we cut down branches, counted all the fruit, and came up with an average for a "representative" branch. Then we go out and count the number of representative branches each week in a 200 meter circle centered on our banding area.

I can tell you that this work falls under both "tedious" and "easier said than done." It is not precision work (and it varies annually depending on fruit crop), so what we'll end up with is a list in approximate rank abundance, based in categories that increase by orders of magnitude. Even with that crude ranking, it's not easy and very time consuming. Much of our counting is done along a busy public bike path. People are intrigued when they see one of us standing and staring at the vegetation for long periods of time; they inevitably ask us what I am looking at. I know I have become much more adept at writing down my fruit counts and keeping track of where I am so that I can stop and explain what I'm doing.

How many ripe multiflora rose hips are just
in this one bush?
We also take various measurements of the fruits of each species throughout the season: the diameter of individual fruits, how many seeds they contain, and the diameter of the seeds. This can help us understand what size fruits are favored by different bird species, if they prefer fruits with a few large seeds or more small seeds, etc. Some fruits are simple: the shrub dogwoods are typically 5 to 8 mm, and have one seed. Then there are fruits like Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), which have around three dozen, 2 mm seeds each! All get dutifully counted and measured. 

We start on Monday, spend at least one full day just working on fruit, and finish as best we can on days we band. Due to our funding shortfall, our days have been cut back so we are cramming as much work in as possible.

These tasks would not be possible without the help of Dana Wloch, who first started with RRBO as an undergrad, then under several grants, including one where she helped develop our seed identification website, and now is back as a volunteer. Thank you, Dana! We are the dynamic fruit duo of Dearborn.